Cigarette smoke usage is prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, and, despite highly active antiretroviral therapy, these individuals develop an accelerated form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Studies investigating the mechanisms of COPD development in HIV have been limited by the lack of suitable mouse models. Here we describe a model of HIV-induced COPD in wild-type mice using EcoHIV, a chimeric HIV capable of establishing chronic infection in immunocompetent mice. A/J mice were infected with EcoHIV and subjected to whole body cigarette smoke exposure. EcoHIV was detected in alveolar macrophages of mice. Compared with uninfected mice, concomitant EcoHIV infection significantly reduced forced expiratory flow 50%/forced vital capacity and enhanced distal airspace enlargement following cigarette smoke exposure. Lung IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression was significantly enhanced in smoke-exposed EcoHIV-infected mice. These changes coincided with enhanced IκBα, ERK1/2, p38, and STAT3 phosphorylation and lung cell apoptosis. Thus, the EcoHIV smoke exposure mouse model reproduces several of the pathophysiological features of HIV-related COPD in humans, indicating that this murine model can be used to determine key parameters of HIV-related COPD and to test future therapies for this disorder.
- cigarette smoke
- human immunodeficiency virus
- animal model
- Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society
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