Various pathophysiological conditions such as surfactant dysfunction, mechanical ventilation, inflammation, pathogen products, environmental exposures and gastric acid aspiration stress lung cells and the compromise of plasma membranes occur as a result. The mechanisms necessary for cells to repair plasma membrane defects have been extensively investigated in the last two decades, and some of these key repair mechanisms are also shown to occur following lung cell injury. As it was theorized that lung wounding and repair are involved in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), in this review, we summarized the experimental evidence of lung cell injury in these two devastating syndromes, discuss relevant genetic, physical and biological injury mechanisms, as well as mechanisms utilized by lung cells for cell survival and membrane repair. Finally, we discuss relevant signalling pathways that may be activated by chronic or repeated lung cell injury as an extension of our cell injury and repair focus in this review. We hope that a holistic view of injurious stimuli relevant for ARDS and IPF could lead to updated experimental models. In addition, parallel discussion of membrane repair mechanisms in lung cells and injury-activated signalling pathways would encourage research to bridge gaps in current knowledge. Indeed, deep understanding of lung cell wounding and repair, and discovery of relevant repair moieties for lung cells should inspire the development of new therapies that are likely preventive and broadly effective for targeting injurious pulmonary diseases.
- membrane repair
- lung cells
- acute respiratory distress syndrome
- epithelium mesenchymal crosstalk
- pulmonary fibrosis
- Copyright © 2016, American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology